Cancer de l anus

HERE'S WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT ANUS CANCER

  • On 25/09/2020
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HERE'S WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT ANUS CANCER

Anal cancer is rare cancer that has been on the rise for 30 years. It is often due to papillomavirus infection. What are the symptoms? Is cancer painful and what are the chances of survival?

Definition: what is anal cancer?
Anal cancers are rare, accounting for about 2% of digestive tumors. "These are malignant tumors, in the majority of cases squamous cell carcinomas, which are located at the level of the anal margin or of the anal canal, defines Dr. Vincent de Parades, gastroenterologist, head of the department of the Paris hospital group. Saint-Joseph Anal cancer affects two patient profiles: women in their sixties and young patients who have sex with men and who are infected with HIV.
Anal cancer often develops after infection with the "papillomavirus" virus

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Causes
In the majority of cases, anal cancer develops following an infection caused by the "papillomavirus" virus (HPV) transmitted by direct contact during sexual intercourse. "Before, this mainly concerned women infected with HPV who presented with anal cancer. Today, the frequency of anal cancer has been on the rise for two decades in a population of young homosexual patients infected with the HIV They are 50 to 100 times more likely than the general population to develop anal cancer, "informs Dr de Parades.

Other risk factors for anal carcinoma include:
long-term immunosuppressants,
a history of precancerous lesions or invasive carcinoma of the cervix, vulva or penis,
smoking,
Those at risk should see a proctologist once a year for a physical examination.

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Symptoms.
The main symptoms of anal cancer are:
bleeding
pains,
the sensation of a ball
Anal cancer can be detected by a digital rectal examination or an anoscopy, examining the anus using an endoscope, to check the extent of the lesion. "As with any cancer, the diagnosis is taken with a histological sample. This biopsy is performed under local anesthesia or endoscopically to look for lesions on the anal canal and on the colon and rectum.

A biopsy from the samples of the tumor lesion will be taken and will allow confirmation of the diagnosis of cancer. If the diagnosis is proven, other examinations such as a CT scan or MRI may be necessary to look for an extension of this tumor process to lymph nodes or other organs.

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Treatment and survival prognosis
"The treatment is codified today. It consists of basic radiotherapy often combined with chemotherapy, informs Dr. Vincent de Parades. This treatment is very effective. It is cancer with a good prognosis because it is diagnosed early". The 5-year survival for all stages of anal cancer is 70 to 80%. The 5-year survival for stage 1 or 2 anal cancer is 80% and that of stage 3 cancer is 59-80%.

Prevention and vaccine
Primary prevention of anal tumors involves HPV vaccination in girls and boys. This vaccination is not yet very widespread in France.

 


 

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